Planting trees and shrubs can be a
significant investment in money and time. So before you buy, you should do a
little research. Proper tree selection can give you years of enjoyment,
significantly increase property values, and help save energy. Here are some
guidelines to consider before you buy:
1. Purpose for the tree. Trees and shrubs serve many
landscape functions. Decide if you will use your tree mainly for beautification,
for screening sight and sounds, for shade and energy conservation, or for a
combination of these things.
2. Choose a tree that is appropriate for your area. A tree
that is native or suitable to your area will be more tolerant of weather and
soil conditions. Be careful that the trees and shrubs you select are winter
hardy for your area.
3. Size of tree. When planting a small seedling, it is hard
to imagine how big it will grow. Make sure that the tree you plant won't grow
beyond the dimensions of your property. Many people make the mistake of planting
trees too close to their house only to have to transplant or remove them.
4. Average life expectancy. Some trees can live for hundreds
of years. Others are considered short lived and live for only 20 or 30 years.
Short lived tree species should not necessarily be ruled out. They may have
desirable characteristics like shape or tolerance of shade and would be useful
in your landscape. Plus these trees could fill a void in a young landscape and
be removed as other larger, longer living trees mature.
5. Ornamental value. Some species of trees and shrubs have
beautiful displays of flowers or color for short periods in the fall or spring.
Other ornamental trees and shrubs flower or bloom all summer. For interest in
your landscape, you should work to have something blooming year round.
6. Insects and disease. Controlling insects and diseases on
certain species of trees can be a problem. Check to see that the tree you
purchase isn't particularly susceptible to disease or insects in your
7. Evergreen or deciduous. Evergreen trees will provide
cover and shade year round. Deciduous trees will give you summer shade but allow
the winter sun to shine through. This may be a matter of consideration for
placement in your yard, or whether the trees you plant will block your
neighbor’s sun or view.
Now that you've carefully considered the trees and shrubs you want to buy,
it's time to start looking at options. Home gardeners can choose from a wide
variety of plant materials. Plants are grown by various methods and can be
purchased one of three ways; as container grown, balled and burlapped
(B&B), and bare root. Each of these harvesting and growing techniques has
advantages and disadvantages and requires different planting specifications.
- Container grown. The advantage of using container grown
plants is that the roots are all in the container, so the plant doesn't have
as much transplant shock. Plus they can be planted year round and are much
lighter to move than B&B plants. The main disadvantage is the possibility
of having root bound plants with roots circling the container.
- Balled and burlapped. B&B saplings are older,
larger trees dug from a commercial nursery. The trees are wrapped in burlap
and usually kept in the nursery for a period of time giving the roots the
opportunity to regenerate. The major advantage of B&B trees is that
soil types can be matched when planted.
- Bare root. Bare root trees are usually extremely small
trees. The advantage of planting bare root trees is mainly economical. They
are less expensive to produce because of ease of harvesting, storing, and
shipping. Frequently, bare root trees are offered by seed and nursery mail
order catalogs. Bare roots trees should be planted while they are completely
Depending on whether you want more established trees and shrubs in some areas
and less mature plant material in other locations, you can buy plants grown from
all three production methods.
Just make sure to carefully follow the planting instructions that come with
each tree or shrub. A properly planted tree or shrub will grow faster, live
longer and be more tolerant of adverse conditions than one planted incorrectly.
Here are some guidelines to follow:
1. Digging the hole. Dig a hole twice as wide as and
slightly shallower than the root ball. This puts the backfill soil where the new
tree roots will grow and leaves a base of naturally firm soil for the root ball
to rest on.
2. Roughen the sides and bottom of the hole. Smooth walls
are like cement to tree root tips, so make sure to roughen the sides and bottom
with a shovel.
3. For potted trees. Be gentle but firm when removing the
container. Hit the bottom and sides of the container until the root ball is
loosened. Make sure to protect the foliage by laying the tree on its side. If
the roots are root bound or girdled, you should disturb the root mass before
4. For B&B trees. Remove the string or wire than holds
the burlap. It is unnecessary to completely remove the burlap. Gently separate
circling roots on the root ball. Shorten exceptionally long tree roots and guide
the shortened roots downward and outward.
5. Place the root ball in the hole. Leave the top of the
root ball 1/2-inch to 1 inch above the surrounding soil, making sure not to
cover it unless roots are exposed. Do not set trees too deep.
6. Add water. As you add soil to fill around the tree,
lightly tamp it down, or add water to help settle the soil. Water the tree
thoroughly after planting. A tree with a dry root ball cannot absorb water.
7. Mulch around the tree. Cover a 3-foot diameter area
around the tree with mulch. Leave a small circle at the base of the trunk
When to plant
Trees can be planted almost any time of year as long as
the ground is not frozen. Late summer or early fall is the optimum planting time
in many areas for most trees. This gives the tree a chance to establish new
roots before winter arrives and the ground freezes.Growth, Size and
I have heard numerous
times from customers referring to a small sized tree, “I’ll be dead before I get
to enjoy this tree”. I think to myself, “what keeps you from enjoying the tree
now”? The fallacy in this statement is that trees can only be appreciated when
they are large and dominant in the landscape. This can take many years. Is size
the only thing that trees have to offer us? Trees have as many ornamental
features as any other plant in the landscape but somehow these get overlooked. I
say trees have as much to offer us when they are small as they do when they have
reached a mature size.
The nursery/landscape industry has perpetuated the
outdated practice of planting isolated trees in the landscape. In nearly every
yard and lawn, trees are grown in complete isolation from any other plant or
tree. You will never find trees growing like this in nature. These trees are
nothing more than “green lawn ornaments” imprisoned in our landscapes surrounded
by a sea of grass. There are times when this planting design serves a purpose
but trees and plants in general look better when they are grouped and allowed to
grow as a community of plants. You are limiting yourself in both the numbers,
varieties and placement of trees by adhering to this antiquated practice. I will
try to dispel this outdated notion and explain to you why trees should be
planted in greater numbers, at closer spacing and at smaller sizes.
Standard nursery practice creates a tree that has a perfectly straight
trunk with a full rounded outline. In most cases trees are cloned so every tree
has the same identical genetics to promote certain desirable traits and
standardize the growth habits. This is fine for factory made trees but survival
in nature requires genetic diversity and adaptability to environmental changes.
Artistically, diversity is more interesting than standardization. Under nursery
production, trees are grown with a trunk that measures 1” to 3” in diameter the
tree is then dug up from the nursery with only a fraction of the original root
system retained in the root ball to support this large canopy of branches and
leaves. The tree is then purchased and planted in a landscape and expected to
live and grow when most of its supporting root system has been cut away. It is
surprising that any of these trees actually survive but a significant number do
die in from one to several years after transplanting. For many trees it may take
several years before it finally succumbs to a slow death from starvation.
The main problem is that people want instant trees but trees like most
living organisms grow at a variable rate over its entire life span which can
span several centuries. By digging up and transplanting a relatively large tree
the tree is suffering severe injury and shock to its current and often future
health from which many trees will never recover.
For better survival and
health trees should be planted at a smaller size than they currently are. There
are several sound environmental, physiological and economic reasons for planting
smaller sized plants. Smaller is a relative term so what do I mean by smaller?
For most trees, heights that measure from 5ft to 8ft is a good size for
planting. This size is easy to handle, responds quickly after transplanting, is
affordable but is large enough to visually fill the planting space.
a small tree is planted more of the root system is retained with the plant and
the root system is more in balance with the above ground portion of the tree. A
good thing to remember is that any plant is only as good as its root system. A
tree can only grow leaves and branches if the root system can supply the needed
water and nutrients. The roots of a small plant quickly establish in the
surrounding soil and can then support new growth of the leaves and branches. For
this reason smaller trees often catch up to and surpass the growth of trees that
were planted at a larger size. The growth of the tree will adjust to the soil
and moisture conditions where it is permanently planted, not to where it was
grown in the nursery.
The economics of size, survival and time dictates
that a smaller sized tree will cost a fraction of the cost of a large caliper
tree. A large tree costs more due to the number of additional years it grew in
the nursery and the added risk of covering the replacement cost of trees that do
not survive transplanting. It takes more labor and the use of heavy equipment to
dig, handle and ship a large tree. For nurseries fewer larger trees are sold so
a higher mark up is charged per tree to turn a profit. Smaller trees can be
lifted and moved by hand whereas larger trees normally require the use of a
tractor, chain and bucket. One person can easily dig the planting hole for a
small tree by hand but a large tree may even require a backhoe.
the reasons given to justify planting smaller, for me the number one reason to
plant smaller sized trees is that you will be able to afford to plant more trees
and by planting more trees you will be able to enjoy more of the beauty and
artistic interest that each tree provides. Shouldn’t this be reason enough?
I’ve now convinced you to plant more trees but now there is one more
hurdle that must be overcome. That hurdle is the long entrenched practice of
planting trees in total isolation from each other and from any other plants in
the landscape. I’m sure you are familiar with this practice, but now look
around, take a look at how trees grow in nature or where homes were built in
native woodland. Witness how these trees grow in mixed communities of several
species. Observe how the high airy canopy creates a cathedral like feeling. It
is more aesthetically pleasing to the eye to view a grove of trees than an
individual tree all by itself. A group of trees in a planting can have the same
or greater visual impact as one large tree and offers diverse ornamental
interest. Trees can and should be planted closer together. The landscape trend
should be to create plant communities using a mixture of large and small trees
along with a planting of shrubs at the ground level. This is not only more
interesting to look at but also provides critical habitat for birds and small
mammals that is absent from most of our landscapes.
Size can still be an
obstacle for some people. The mindset that a tree is not a tree unless it is
large is hard to overcome. Time will eventually remedy this but in the short
term there is an easy fix. The solution is to landscape with a mixture of plant
types. Trees, shrubs and perennials can all be planted together in one landscape
bed. In this way the tree is just one of the features in the whole landscape
planting. The shrubs and perennials provide fullness and cover at the ground
level and create a full complex landscape. The shrubs provide additional
ornamental interest to the planting that compliment the ornamental features of
the trees. As the trees grow they will continue to develop vertically creating
the multi-layered structure that is so interesting.
Smaller trees can
create the same or greater effect as one larger tree. A grouping of several
smaller trees can initially fill the same visual space as planting one large
tree. But over time the grouping of trees will create far more visual and
ornamental impact in the landscape. A group of trees give you far more variety
and options than planting just one lone tree. If you think in terms of flowers
would you rather have a single flower in a vase or a whole bouquet of flowers? A
grove of trees can give you variety in bark texture, fall leaf color, leaf shape
and texture, growth habit, conifer versus deciduous trees.
Trees in a
group develop a very different growth habit than a single tree. A single tree
will have low broad branching that may be difficult to walk under or see
through. The trunks of trees grown at close spacing will grow tall and straight
with a high canopy and few lower branches. The area beneath tall trees is open
and airy creating a sense of spaciousness much like a cathedral. The high canopy
allows light and air to enter and circulate from the sides. A grove of trees is
easy to walk under and permits an unobstructed view from end to end. The
straight vertical trunks bring your vision upward and invites the viewer to walk
beneath the canopy and be sheltered in its shade.
Planting smaller gives you many more options in terms of
economics, design and aesthetics. There are unlimited numbers of plant
combinations and design arrangements that can be used in the landscape. Read
books on natural landscaping and woodland gardening for help in selecting plants
and designing plantings. I can help you with design and selection and I
also grow trees specifically for use in groupings.
To assist you in better understanding our view of nature and how to design landscapes that use nature's natural design to enhance your landscape, we have developed a tutorial. Click here to experience our vision and see if it is could be yours also.
Natural Landscape Design Tutorial
The only way to ensure a positive experience with a local tree service is to hire an established company with a proven track record. If you are in the northeast Atlanta GA area be sure to check out Gwinnett Tree Service - Remember, asking for references is not enough - you must follow up with them. Another absoulute must is to make sure that the tree removal service is not only licensed, but fully insured as well.
A Bird's Home
Jim Miller Golf
Reigning Cats & Dogs
A Pond's Home
A Plant's Home
An Instrument's Home