Converting an existing grassy area into a meadow
|Wildflowers growing up from seed|
Pot grown wildflowers
Scattering wildflower seed over your grassy area will not be successful. You will have to make gaps to give the flowers chance to grow. The best way to do this is to remove whole squares of turf and topsoil (30cm x 30cm) and seed with one or two carefully chosen types of wildflower in the autumn.
Planting pot grown wildflowers
Wildflowers can be introduced into grassy areas as pot grown plants. Local stock can often be bought from nurseries or grown from seed. Plant them in groups into the turf. Plant in autumn to allow the roots to become established before competition from other plants builds up in the spring. To help reduce this, spread a mulch around your new plantings or replace the turf upside down. You must care for your meadow; see "Looking after a Wildflower Meadow".
Creating a wildflower meadow from scratch
Preparing the groundThis is the ideal way of creating a wildflower meadow. Good ground preparation is essential for success. The secret is a low fertility soil. A fertile soil will just cause vigorous growth of a few grasses and 'weeds'. You can reduce fertility by stripping off the top 5-10cm or so of topsoil. Then lightly rake and roll the soil to produce a seed bed.
Sowing the seedThe best time to sow your wildflower seed is in early autumn. You can sow in April, but many seeds need the cold winter months to break their in-built dormancy. They will therefore not germinate in their first year from a spring sowing.
For best results:
- Order specific quantities of the different types of seeds you have chosen. Sow them in patches into an area which has been lightly seeded with a natural grass mix.
- The sowing rate should be very low to avoid overcrowding.
1.0 to 1.5g of grass mix per square metre is best.
- To get an even spread of seed mix it with sand or sawdust.
- Immediately after sowing, rake the surface lightly and firm with a small roller.
Take care to look after your new meadow.
- When the seeds have germinated and the grasses reach a height of about 10cm, the meadow should be cut. This will knock back unwanted 'weeds' such as groundsel and chickweed. Any thistles and docks should be pulled up.
- Before cutting, you can lightly roll the meadow to firm any plants into the soil.
- During the first year try to cut your meadow every 6-8-weeks. Always remove the cuttings to prevent a build up of dead plant material. This will help the meadow plants to become established.
- In following years, adopt a twice a year mowing pattern.
Choosing the right species
Poor soils are best
Rich soils encourage vigorous grasses
The soil will determine whether your meadow is going to be successful and the types of wildflower seed needed. Some soils are naturally too rich to bother with.
Don't despair if the soil is too fertile, you could create a cornfield flower patch instead. Simply sow a mixture of cornfield annuals (such as poppies, cornflowers, corncockles and corn marigolds) over bare soil for a colourful display. After the flowers have set seed, rake over the soil so that there is open ground for them to grow in next year.
Always use local seed and plants to reflect what naturally grows in your area. Never use imported seed or plants grown from unreliable sources. Check before buying.
Examples of some wildflowers and their requirements
Wildflower Soil type Wildflower Soil type Ox-eye daisy A Field scabious D Yarrow A Cowslip B Bugle A Wild carrot B Selfheal A Yellow rettle A Salad burnet B Meadow buttercup A Meadow cranesbill B Black knapweed D Goat's beard A Agrimony A Lady's bedstraw D Betony A Cuckooflower A Birds-foot trefoil A Devil's bit scabious C Perforate St Johns wort A
KEY A - does well on most soils
B - prefers limey less fertile soils
C - tolerates both acid and limey soils
D - prefers well drained soils
Cutting \ Mowing
Leave an uncut edge for insects
Watch Out !! When using a strimmer, please make sure that you are not injuring or killing small animals such as hedgehogs and frogs.
If you are going to cut your meadow, it is best done twice a year at the following times:
- Once in autumn (late August to September)
- Once in early spring (late March to early April)
The cuttings must be removed. This will make sure that the wildflowers can grow. It will also prevent thistles, docks, brambles and scrub from taking over.
The autumn cut gives the meadow plants the best chance to flower and set seed. However, traditional hay meadows can be cut in late July. Farmers may also want to cut at this time to provide hay for farm animals. The spring cut knocks back thistles and vigorous grasses that may have taken hold over the winter.
Cutting is flexible, allowing a great deal of control over the timing, area and height of the cut. However, cutting a whole meadow in one go can take away all the food needed by insects. So leave some areas uncut for them. The best way to do this is to cut the edges of your grassland in rotation. Leave a different side uncut each year. A four metre margin is ideal.
Cutting can be carried out with a variety of tools. This will depend on the size of your meadow and what is available to you. On a small meadow, in medium to long grass, hand sythes or a power strimmer can be used. On a larger area long grass can be cut for hay using a power sythe or a tractor drawn grass cutter.
If you have a pet pony or have access to cows, goats or sheep, you could graze your meadow. The best time to graze is usually in the early spring and late autumn, as with cutting. But - always get advice about timing.
If your meadow is invaded by 'weeds' such as docks and thistles, then animals can be kept on over the summer to knock them back. However this is harmful to insects and should only be done every few years.
The effects of grazing are complex. There are a number of things to consider.
- Cattle, goats and other bigger animals are more likely to erode the soil than smaller ones such as sheep.
- Sheep, goats and other smaller animals need better fencing to keep them in.
- The more animals there are in a field, the less choosy they are about what they eat. So large numbers can control brambles and vigorous grasses. But beware - they can cause erosion.
- Animal dung can change the plants growing in a meadow. Dung patches may become colonised by unwanted nettles and thistles.
- Animals will need to be properly cared for and need plenty of water.
Seek professional advice about the number and type of grazing animals to use.
Choosing between cutting and grazing
Type of site Grazing Cutting Small, less than half a acre May be difficult to get right level of grazing and difficult to support a grazing unit Cutting is likely to prove more economical and simpler on a small site Large, more than half a acre Grazing will be a more attractive proposition for a farmer Without suitable machinery cutting requires many people Uneven ground Grazing can cope well on uneven ground Cutting will be difficult Urban areas Animals may be prone to disturbance, especially by dogs Cutting will be less problematic Site preparation Need to provide fencing and a source of water Need to clear rocks, etc, which could damage machinery/tools
Always prepare before you make a choice. There is so much info about can cockroaches bite peregrinepestcontrol at http://www.peregrinepestcontrol.ca
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